- COMPULSORY AND FORMAL ISSUES
- MATERIAL WORKING ENVIRONMENT
- IMPROVEMENT NOTICES
On construction sites, in some cases there are different working environment rules than there are at permanent workplaces. This may partly be the requirement for organisation, welfare measures, etc.
Many of the serious accidents – including fatalities – happen on construction sites. It is therefore important to have a special focus on the working environment and safety.
It is important to ensure that scaffolding is set up properly, that chemical products are used correctly, that there is proper lighting, that employees are instructed and that there is enough time to complete the task so that you don’t choose to compromise on safety.
In many construction cases, the building owner must appoint an occupational health and safety coordinator. This is relevant when two or more companies are working on a construction case at the same time. Construction cases are divided into small, medium-sized, and large construction cases.
Small construction cases are defined as construction cases where fewer than five people are employed at the same time. Here, the occupational health and safety coordination must be carried out by a person who has expert knowledge in the construction field and who has knowledge of the actors in construction.
Medium-sized construction cases are defined as construction cases where five to 10 people are employed are the same time. Here, the occupational health and safety coordination must be carried out by a person who – in addition to what applies to small construction cases – also has the necessary knowledge of health and safety issues within the construction field.
Large construction cases are defined as construction cases where more than 10 people are employed at the same time. Here, the occupational health and safety coordination must be carried out by a person who – in addition to the requirements for small and medium-sized construction cases – also has practical experience in managing construction work and who has completed a Danish Occupational Health and Safety course for coordinators of health and safety work within the construction field.
The occupational health and safety coordination must start as early as in the design phase where a Health and Safety Plan (HSP, or PSS in Danish) is started. Before the construction phase begins, the HSP must be handed over and updated with an overview plan of the organization of the construction site, an organizational diagram, a contingency plan, etc.
During the construction phase, in the case for large construction cases, safety meetings and inspection tours must be held every two weeks.
It is important to separate driving and pedestrian traffic at permanent workplaces as well as on construction sites.
At the permanent workplaces, it will typically be in warehouses and in larger production premises that there will be driving traffic with trucks and the like. At the same time, there will be pedestrian traffic when employees move around the workplace.
It often also presents challenges and dangerous situations when people – who are not used to moving in the workplace – have to move in the areas where there is driving traffic.
Likewise on construction sites where there is driving traffic in connection with unloading of materials, driving with machines used on the construction site, etc.
At the same time, some of the employees move around the site, and in the event of a moment of inattention or lack of overview, a dangerous situation can quickly arise.
That is why it is important to have separate driving and pedestrian traffic.
MELAU – Arbejdsmiljø ApS is experienced in teaching developers, construction managers, employees and more in health and safety topics, such as:
You are always welcome to contact us so that we can adjust the teaching to meet your needs.
It is the employer's duty to ensure that machines and electrical tools are inspected according to the manufacturer's instructions.
The instruction manual must state how often and how to carry out ongoing maintenance and inspection of the machine or electrical tool.
Register your machines and electrical tools and find out how often the individual machine or electrical tool needs to be inspected. Evaluate it e.g. according to how often it is used.
It must be stated in the individual machine or electrical tool when it was last inspected.
You can do this in several ways, e.g. with colour markings, numbering etc.
The supplier or another expert must carry out the inspection.
You can – in most cases – carry out the inspection yourself.
The necessary information regarding the inspection must be stated in the manufacturer's instruction manual.
In addition, there is a requirement that you prepare instructions for your employees. They must contain information about which tasks the machine/tool may be used for, which personal protective equipment is to be used, who carries out the inspection of the machine/tool, etc.
MELAU - Arbejdsmiljø ApS can help you prepare instructions for the machines/tools used in your company.
Many accidents occur when ladders are set up or used incorrectly. Maybe the ladder is not set up at the correct angle, maybe the surface is not stable and even, maybe the ladder is damaged. The possibilities are many and the risk is great. Accident statistics from The Danish Working Environment Authority how that work accidents with falls from ladders occur on a daily basis.
As with ladders, serious accidents occur with falls from scaffoldings – often in connection with the removal of a railing, which is then no re-established. It is important that you know the rules for the correct erection of scaffoldings. Once the erector of the scaffolding has put a green approval sign on the scaffolding, it is your responsibility that the scaffolding is safe and complies with the rules.
MELAU – Arbejdsmiljø can help you teach your employees the scaffolding rules and correct erection and use of ladders. In addition, we can help you check used scaffoldings for faults and defects.
Establishing and working in and at excavations can be a dangerous affair. There may be a collapse of soil in the excavation, and there may be a collapse into the excavation itself – either of personnel or material.
It is therefore important that you prepare well and constantly keep an eye on what need there is for securing the excavation, what need there is to block against driving traffic, where machines, tools, piles of dirt, etc. are placed.
The following can hopefully be used as a checklist:
For all depths, tasks and the like, the following applies:
Proper access roads and escape routes to excavations must be established.
Ladders can be used as an escape route. Place it close to the work area. The ladder must stand on a stable surface AND protrude 1 meter above the edge of the excavation.
In the case of a construction pit, a permanent access road in the form of a staircase must be established. There are special requirements for such a staircase. If necessary, see “Manual – Working environment for building and construction”.
When working and driving above excavations, a secure railing must be set up around the entire excavation at a height of at least 1 meter.
Some excavations may be wider at the top than at the bottom, and therefore there may be an opening between e.g. the trench box and terrain. Solution: Fill up with soil or establish railings and access road.
Cranes, excavators and trucks are often used close to excavations. Solution: The surface must be stable and tread plates can be laid.
MELAU – Arbejdsmiljørådgivning is an experienced health and safety coordinator and specialist in health and safety coordination during both the design and the execution of constructions.
Consultants, designers, developers, and employers – including, among other, the entrepreneurs – have a duty to ensure that the Working Environment Act can be complied with in connection with the work that is being planned, designed, and executed.
Developers have a duty to select a health and safety coordinator for construction work where two or more employees are expected to be present on the construction site at the same time in order to ensure that the project they carry out complies with the rules of the Working Environment Act.
MELAU – Arbejdsmiljørådgivning is experienced in many types and sizes of coordination tasks and construction cases. See under “References” for further description of the individual projects.
A health and safety plan (HSP) must be drawn up as soon as in the design phase (D) if in the execution phase (E) there will be more than one employer on the construction site and if more than ten people are employed at the same time on the site.
On construction sites with several employers and 10 or fewer people employed at the same time on the site, an HSP must be prepared if particular dangerous work is carried out on the site. In this case, the HSP should only cover the part of the work that relates to the particular hazard.
It is recommended that an HSP is always prepared, except for the very small and harmless constructions.
The HSP must be available to employees and employers on the construction site throughout the construction period.
Once the building owner has entered into agreements with the contractors, the health and safety plan (HSP) must be completed in accordance with the specific agreements entered into with the contractors, etc. It will typically be the occupational health and safety coordinator (E) who solves this task.
The HSP is then completed and finally approved by the building owner.
The HSP must be available before the start of the construction site and must likewise be available to the employers and their employees at their start on the construction site
The HSP must be an active part of the basis for cooperation on health and safety on the construction site.
The HSP should therefore be designed in an easily accessible form.
The HSP is updated during the construction process:
If the task of occupational health and safety coordination in the design and execution phase is not handled by the same person, a proper transfer of PSS must take place.